How do scientists determine what was the population of the Earth in different eras?

The UN recently reported that the population of the Earth reached 8 billion people. And where do scientists get information about how many people lived on Earth in other periods, especially to the spread of more or less reliable demographic data?

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  1. If we keep in mind the historical periods before the appearance of states and writing, then this is a rather complicated procedure that requires close cooperation of various specialists: Ø Geography gives information about the spread of modern landscapes and about the area occupied by them, and paleogeography about how and when in the period from The end of the last ice age about 12 thousand years ago, landscape boundaries changed to this day due to constant climate fluctuations inherent in any interglacial period, including our modern one. Ø Ethnography provides information about the real possible population density with different types of farm in this landscape, which was recorded during the beginning of the XX century, and therefore about the possible maximum or average number of carriers of these types of farm (hunting, or nomadic cattle breeding , or plowed agriculture, etc.) on the territory of this landscape. Xsology provides information on where and what type (based on what type of economic activity) of the settlement or temporary parking lots were found in the particular era of interest, and in which Type of landscapes, they were placed. The type of farm in that era (archeology), the type of landscape or landscapes then occupied by people and their area (paleogeography), and the potentially possible population density in this kind of landscapes and this type of economy (ethnography) is no longer difficult calculate the maximum possible or average population who lived at the expense of the indicated On the type of economic activity in the distribution of the relevant landscapes. For example, the calculations of the population of both Americas on the eve of the arrival of H. Columbus to the islands of the Caribbean are given below, by reference. This number is now estimated in the range from 8.4 to 112.55 million people, but the average and most justified assessment at the moment, which is usually included in various kinds of demography or history – 57.3 million people: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1171896/pre-colonization-population-americas/

  2. Well, as I understand it, having rummaged through the sources of the population in past eras (from 10 thousand years BC), is predicted on the basis of archaeological and historical sources, as well as extrapolating the current exponential growth of the population. The population for the last 10 thousand years: https: //infotables.ru/strany-i-goroda/1208-storiya-nasleniya-zemli

  3. Well, as I understand it, having rummaged through the sources of the population in past eras (from 10 thousand years BC), is predicted on the basis of archaeological and historical sources, as well as extrapolating the current exponential growth of the population. The population for the last 10 thousand years: https: //infotables.ru/strany-i-goroda/1208-storiya-nasleniya-zemli

  4. The science of the Earth’s population and its composition are studied by science demography. 8000 years ago, no more than 5 million people lived throughout the globe. The population of the population was limited to diseases, hunger, natural disasters. The beginning of the new era, the population of the Earth has already set about 200 million people, After another thousand years, the population increased by 80 million, and 500 years ago, 1 milliard Homo Sapiza, rational people, already lived on the globe. In the 17-18 centuries, the population of Europe, as well as their life expectancy, was due to the development of industry , Medmcins, improving the working and life of the population. The duration of human life in Europe reached 70 years. As the World of Nature Fund, by the mid -21st century, will have to be assessed by about as much as much as humanity has produced in 8000 years of cultural civilization. 1987 in 1987 in 1987 The population of the Earth was 5 billion people, in 1999 6 million, in 2011 already 7 billion, in 2022 in November Syats reached 8 billion people. One scientist demograph calculated that more than 90 billion people lived on Earth as a whole.

  5. There is an approach that consists in studying the genetic diversity of modern people. Analyzing the genetic composition of the modern population, scientists can receive information about the population, migration models and other demographic factors in the past. This method is especially useful for the study of human populations, since the genetic information of modern people can be used to reconstruct the demographic history of our species. Archaeological data are also widely used to study the world’s population in different eras. Analyzing artifacts and other remains left by ancient human societies, an archaeologist can learn about the population, the nature of the resettlement and other aspects of human life in the past. Nakonets, mathematical models are also used to determine the population in the past. Taking into account factors such as birth rate and mortality indicators, migration models and genetic drift, these models can generate estimates of the population over various periods of time. It is necessary to note that to assess the population in different periods of time is a difficult task, mainly due to Lack of data, but all these methods give an approximate view, and sometimes some of them are united to ensure a more accurate assessment.

  6. There are quite a lot of indirect methods: from assessing the area of ​​cities, and evaluating what part of the population could live in them to measurements of the number of pollen of agricultural crops in deposits of a particular era, comparing this data with late, when the population is known to be accurately evaluated, of course all this Plus-minus dozens of percent

  7. To determine this, scientists dig holes, and look – how many bones from the population are in these pits and how it was at different depths? What was eaten, with whom it fought, what it believed and what read? This is a very ancient way of cognition, it appeared 5,500 years ago and is called “pit culture.”

  8. Different scientists are determined differently. There is no single source of determining the population in ancient times. Therefore, this is all relatively. For example, what number of soldiers of the army of Tukhtamysh died in three battles against the army of Tamerlane. Historians speak differently. Geologists also speak ambiguously. And over the past centuries, various forms of accounting of citizens have been held. Another example of Samarkand is 2500 years old and one million people lived there in those days. In London, one million people also lived in those days. I think there can be no definite answer.

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